Al-Lisan: Jurnal Bahasa (e-Journal) 2022-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Enni Akhmad Open Journal Systems <div style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Al-Lisan: Jurnal Bahasa (e-Journal) </strong> <strong>aims at and focuses</strong> on publishing research-based and conceptual articles in the area of English and Arabic Education, Linguistics and Literatures from researchers, academicians, students, professional, and practitioners from all over the world. <strong>The scopes of Al-Lisan: Jurnal Bahasa (e-Journal)</strong> are English and Arabic language teaching and learning, English and Arabic language testing and assessment, English and Arabic language instructional materials , Curriculum design and development in ELT and Arabic Language Teaching, Information and Communication Technology in ELT and Arabic Language Teaching, Applied linguistics, English language acquisition, Discourse analysis, Translation Studies.</div> <hr /> A Pragmatic Equivalence of Violating Maxims in Novel Translation of Divergent 2022-07-15T02:57:35+00:00 Wuri Rahmawati Dwi Haryanti Malikatul Laila <p>This study covers the pragmatics equivalence and violation maxims in the Divergent novel. Classifying the forms of Grice maxim violations and describing the pragmatic equivalence of violation maxims in the Divergent novel are the objectives of this study. It is a qualitative paper that examines violation maxims and pragmatic equivalence in the novel Divergent. The data were direct-utterances infraction maxims in English and Indonesian. There are two types of data analysis techniques employed in this study. The analysis began with a document review, followed by an evaluation of the translation's quality based on pragmatic equivalence. As a result of the research, the following findings were discovered: 139 data were classified as violation maxims. The majority of the results (45,32.4%) involved violations of the quality standard. Second, based on the qualitative parameter of pragmatic equivalence, a total of 137 out of 139 data points were deemed "accurate translation" and two out of 139 (1,43%) data might be regarded as "less accurate translation." This investigation uncovered no translations that may be deemed inaccurate.</p> 2022-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Wuri Rahmawati, Dwi Haryanti, Malikatul Laila English Varieties: Students’ Perceptions through Their Multiculturalism Perspectives 2022-06-23T05:32:48+00:00 Fadhlan Saini <p>This research aimed at finding out the students’ perceptions toward their awareness in multiculturalism and to reveal the correlation of their perceptions on the use of their English varieties. To obtain the data, it was employed mix-method design by going through some steps. Seen through qualitative side, it was utilized descriptive qualitative method in which the researcher figured out the description of students’ awareness of multiculturalism and its position to the use of their English varieties. Meanwhile, in quantitative side, the researcher employed the calculation of the questionnaire by passing the SPSS program to measure out correlation of them both. It was intended to figure out the calculation of the questionnaire results between both perceptions, if there was any relationship. Findings showed that their perceptions were vary. It can be seen by the reflection of their activities of the external and internal activities of their own. Those activities were linked to explain that, by having multicultural awareness, students could define the methodology in enhancing their expression of English varieties. Additionally, within these activities, students could try to socialize and expand their ability in expressing English language variety by confidently as well as pleasantly.</p> 2022-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Fadhlan Saini Metacognitive Reading Strategies and L2 Reading Achievements: A Correlational Study of EFL in Indonesia 2022-07-18T02:53:10+00:00 Leona Nine Angga Dewi Ignatius Tri Endarto <p>This study aimed to investigate how metacognitive reading strategies correlate with EFL learners’ achievement. Three types of metacognitive reading strategies were measured in this study, namely: global reading strategies, problem-solving reading strategies, and support reading strategies. The data collection was conducted with 56 participants from an ESP reading class at a private university in Yogyakarta. This study found that problem-solving reading strategies and global reading strategies correlated positively with students’ achievement, while support reading strategies correlated negatively with their achievement. However, those correlations were not statistically significant. Therefore, it indicates insufficient evidence to suggest that the same correlations also happened in the population or that the observed correlations might have occurred by chance. Despite the correlations not being statistically significant, in this research, the participants were sampled from the population with a 95% confidence level and a margin of error of 5%.In addition to the findings, this study provides teachers with an example of a framework for a needs analysis to measure their students’ metacognitive reading strategies and help them plan more informed reading instruction.</p> 2022-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Leona Nine Angga Dewi, Ignatius Tri Endarto Yorùbá and their Symbolic Means of Communication: A Pragma-Semiotic Analysis of Ààlè 2022-07-30T00:37:19+00:00 Festus Moses Onipede <p>Lots of research had been conducted on àrokò, a symbolic and nonverbal/verbal means of communication among the Yorùbá. While àrokò as a hyponym and ààlè as the super-ordinate have not been studied much. It is in this gap in the literature that this paper attempts a pragma-semiotic analysis of Yorùbá concept of ààlè. Data for the analysis were gathered through participant observation and informal questions technique where these ààlè were used. Mey's (2001) pragmatic acts and Peirce's (1931) symbolic sign in semiotic theory are employed for the analysis. The study revealed that ààlè is used in traditionally motivated contexts characterized by a pract of warning or caution and response that portrays issues of culture, and the indirect acts are employed through contextual features such as reference, shared situational and cultural knowledge, inference and relevance. The Semiotic analysis shows that the signate such as sand, leaves, sticks, fairly-used or unused cutlass, red cloth, òpàrá (a kind of tree grown in West Africa whose seeds are eaten and the bud used for symbolic communication), and cotton wool are one of the significant components of ààlè as symbols of warning or caution. The paper shows that ààlè is a subset of àrokò. While àrokò is the hyponym of symbolic communication among the Yorùbá, ààlè is a super-ordinate of symbolic means of communication among the Yorùbá, mainly for directions and warning. The paper also revealed that two or more objects could be used as ààlè, but their use context will determine the kind of information they are disseminating.</p> 2022-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Festus Moses Onipede Contrastive Study on Differences in Sentence Aspects between Arabic, Tamil, and English Languages 2022-07-21T07:54:00+00:00 M.S. Zunoomy Muhammadu Sainulabdeen U. Israth A.M.M. Aaqil <p>This research focuses on studying differences in sentence elements between Arabic, English, and Tamil by exposing similarities and dissimilarities. It uses a descriptive contrastive methodology. This research is based on a theory of linguistics. According to this, the researchers used books, articles, theses, and website articles to obtain the necessary information for Secondary data. It finds that Arabic, English, and Tamil belong to different linguistic families. The Arabic language belongs to the Semitic languages, no matter what, Tamil language belongs to Dravidian, and English belongs to the Indo-European family. In this case, they specialize in specific sentence elements according to their linguistic components. Based on this, there are more differences than similarities. For example, there are differences in gender, numeral, tense, pronouns, adjectives, genitives, and articles. These things affect learning a language as a foreign or second language. This study helps the learners to get the differences between the languages. Learners of Arabic, a foreign language, should pay attention to their own language grammar in order to be fluent in both languages to study the Arabic linguistic system in contrast to the Tamil language for learning a language in the best way and to learn Tamil language in the best way, regardless of their mother tongue to learn Arabic fluently.</p> 2022-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 M.S. Zunoomy Muhammadu Sainulabdeen, U. Israth, A.M.M. Aaqil Teachers’ Gestures in EFL Classroom 2022-07-12T01:56:24+00:00 Nihla Afdaliah <p>The research analyzed the teachers’ gestures in EFL classrooms. It covered the teachers’ gestures, the functions of the teachers’ gestures, and the effect of the teachers’ gestures on the students. The research applied a qualitative research design. The subjects of the research were 2 English teachers and 14 students of a senior high school in Majene. The research instruments were classroom observation, teachers’ and students interviews. The results of this research revealed that the teachers performed hand gestures and head gestures in the classroom. The hand gestures were pointing, beckoning/inviting, giving examples, clapping hands, knocking on the table, hitting the whiteboard, illustrating, and numbering. In contrast, for head gestures, they used nodding and shaking head. The teachers used the gestures mainly regarding management, regulation, input, and instruction. But in some meetings, one of the teachers used head gestures combined with a smile when rewarding students and showing affection. These teachers’ gestures were primarily used in conjunction with words or verbal messages (speech-related gestures) to complement, accentuate, and repeat the words. On the other hand, a small number of gestures are also used to substitute words. These gestures are stand-alone or are called speech-independent gestures. Teachers' use of gestures in the classroom consciously and unconsciously affects students and the learning process. Students agreed that using gestures by the teacher could improve their understanding of the material. However, using improper or too many gestures can distract their focus, making it difficult for them, to be nervous and difficult to engage in the learning process. So, it is urgent for the teachers to understand that some gestures should be increased or decreased to create a better learning atmosphere.</p> 2022-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nihla Afdaliah Developing Mobile Learning Application as Instructional Media for Reading Comprehension 2022-07-18T02:59:43+00:00 Ahmad Thoyyib Shofi Wardatul Jannah <p>Students nowadays are no longer enjoy reading printed books. They mostly read from their mobile phone or computers' screens. Teachers need to encourage students to read and comprehend texts. Teachers should adopt and adapt technology in teaching reading comprehension to students in light of the rapidly changing existence of technology. The purpose of this research is to develop appropriate media for learning reading. This research has employed Research and Development design based on ADDIE model. This model is used for media development by requiring 5 stages, namely: 1) Analysis, 2) Design, 3) Development, 4) Implementation, and 5) Evaluation. The research subjects are the tenth graders and the English teacher. Both the media and language experts validated the developed product. The instruments used in the needs analysis are questionnaires for the students and interviews with the English teacher. The final result is in the form of a mobile application that suits the needs of teachers and students. This media consists of 63 slides. The size of this mobile application is 52 Mb. The developed application consists of three main menus and eleven sub-menus. They are the intro page, loading section, menu page, materials page, core competence page, vocabulary building page, learning summary page, exercise page, glossary page, verb form page, user’s guide page, lesson plan page, description of the product page, and exit page. The result of this research could be seen in the enthusiasm, development, and students’ interest in mobile application media. Therefore, it is recommended for teachers to use mobile applications in teaching reading and for other developers to develop applications for the learning process.</p> 2022-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ahmad Thoyyib Shofi, Wardatul Jannah High School EFL Students’ Attitudes towards Learning English Using Blended Learning during the Pandemic 2022-08-04T12:02:22+00:00 Alfinda Febriani Rahayu Kuswardani <p>After the COVID-19 cases were reduced, blended learning was used as a learning method in Indonesia. This study aimed to determine high school EFL students' attitudes about using blended learning to aid them in learning English during the pandemic. This research used a quantitative research design with a survey questionnaire as a data collection method and a Likert scale as the data measurement. The participants were collected by convenience sampling method. They are consisted of 32 senior high school students from SMAN 16 Surabaya, SMAN 20 Surabaya and SMA Muhammadiyah 2 Surabaya. This study used descriptive analysis to analyze the findings. The result showed that high school EFL students in Surabaya presented a neutral attitude toward blended learning. In addition, the students showed the best results for the teacher's learning media and the lowest effects for virtual learning. Based on these findings, high school English teachers should improve their online learning practice since the results showed students’ disinterest in it.</p> 2022-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Alfinda Febriani, Rahayu Kuswardani